#4 Yamaha OX88, V8 3.5L (2 GP, 0 points), and OX99, V12 3.5L (32 GP, 4 points)
Zakspeed thought he was doing himself a favour collaborating with Yamaha for 1988. The Japanese firm, known for its engineering savoir-faire, concocted the OX88 V8 in response to Cosworth which refused to use its novel five-valve per cylinder concept. A catastrophe: only two back of the grid qualifying results, as many retirements and a bevy of mechanical failures. After a year’s hiatus in the hopes of returning better armed, Yamaha was back with a bulky V12 that was first used by Brabham, then Jordan. Martin Brundle, Mark Blundell and Stefano Modena managed to score just a few points. In the end the Asians entrusted the development of a V10 to Judd that proved to be much more competitive.